Goodreads Giveaway

I am giving away ten copies of Death of a Dyer, my second Will Rees mystery on Goodreads.

In this book, Rees returns to his hometown and tries to settle down. Lydia accompanies him as his housekeeper -both are not sure where their feelings might take them. David also returns home although he and his father are still at odds.

Rees has been home for only a short time when he is asked to look into the murder of a childhood friend.

9781250033963

Housekeeping – Laundry

Housekeeping  – 1790s – Laundry

Another really labor intensive and, to my mind, awful job was laundry. Water was heated in one of those large heavy kettles and the wet laundry was stirred in it. Water had to be carried from the well and if no well had been dug, from the nearest spring. Clothing was scrubbed clean on a washboard.

washboard

This is an antique. I am probably the third or fourth generation to own it. This is a small washboard, probably used for lingerie. The washboards used for heavier clothing would have been much larger.

Of course the laundry detergents we use now did not exist. Usually soap was made from wood ashes and fat. The wood ashes were soaked in a barrel. Why, you may ask. Because wood ashes contain lye. Mixed with fat, lye makes a hard and very harsh soap. Getting one’s mouth washed out with soap must have been incredibly unpleasant!

On the frontier, this lye soap was also used to wash bodies. Lydia, since Rees travels regularly to cities like Salem and Philadelphia, and also because Maine was not the frontier in the 1790’s, would have access to other soaps. Castile soap was made with olive oil and was first created in Spain -thus the name. One of the first manufactured soaps for skin was Pears soap and it was made with glycerine. (Ivory, the so pure it floats soap, was not produced until the 1840s. But I digress.)

Since clotheslines had not been invented yet,  laundry was usually draped over bushes or shrubs to dry –  that must have been fun in the winter. The Shakers invented a variety of methods to dry clothing indoors. If you visit Hancock Village you can see one method with a kind of folding screen like contraption. We can also thank them for inventing clothespins – the kind whittled from one piece of wood with two prongs.

Wealthier women hired a laundress who washed the linen – and later the cotton – sheets and clothing. (For those literary people, Beatrix Potter’s Mrs. Tiggy-Winkle was a laundress as was Emmett Otter’s mother). Until calico came in vogue, (since it was cotton it could be washed) only the body linens were laundered. The silks and velvets were not. (Can I say yuck?) After a few wearings they were passed down to a favored servant. Contemporary accounts describe how these pieces of clothing, gowns mostly, were cut up and the still wearable pieces added to other dresses or made over into other clothing.

Monday was wash day, Tuesday was ironing day. (Wednesday was sewing or mending day for those interested.) Flatirons were heated by the fire and when it reached the proper temperature was used. When it cooled it was put back into the fire and another iron was taken from the hearth. The Shakers also invented a chemical to put into the clothing before ironing to reduce the wrinkling: this was many decades before it was used in the World.

When I think of how much laundry my small family generates and imagine trying to keep up with a large family I shudder. And on laundry day, cooking meals still had to be done. Any free time was spent on spinning or, if a loom was owned, on weaving. Since looms were very expensive not every household had the money to purchase one – that is why itinerant weavers like Rees had jobs. Looms of course were passed down – and that is the genesis of the word heirloom.

Many women – I read one statistic that put the number as high as 50% – could not read or write. Girls did not always go to school. They were too busy working in the home.

I think it bears repeating also that women worked usually with a heavy infant in their arms or a toddler at their heels and were probably pregnant besides.

 

Housekeeping circa 1798 – food preparation

Without refrigeration or canned goods, food was prepared from scratch, usually three times a day. Breakfast might consist of mush, pancakes, eggs – familiar food. Supper was a usually a light meal of leftovers from the noon dinner or mush and milk.

 

So cooking was all day, every day. Churning butter and making cheese, smoking meat (men did the butchering but women took care of the meat afterward) and all the food preservation had to be fitted in around the basic cooking. Churning butter, for example, was a time consuming process. It was usually handed off to a child but since it took skill to pat the butter into crocks this was a task reserved for Mother.

 

Cheese making was another skill. Everything had to be spotless and the temperatures just so.

 

Women prepared meals over an open fire or on the hearth of a fireplace.  (The average household used between 30 and 40 cords of wood a year – equal to about one acre of timber). Stoves had been invented by then. Immigrants who came from countries with wood shortages brought tile stoves. Ben Franklin invented a stove in 1741 – but that were not designed for cooking. The 1800s saw the development of stoves – heavy cast iron devices that h led eventually to the large ranges – but they did not take off until after 1815 or so, until then women cooked over an open fire. If the fire went out during the night, a child might be dispatched to a neighbor for a coal. Otherwise a tinderbox might be used. I’ve seen people demonstrate cooking over an open fire. One woman, who is very experienced at these demonstrations, took three hours to get the fire started.

 

As we all know an even temperature is not possible with an open fire. Some of the early fireplaces had ovens for bread and other baked goods built into the brick surround. It must have been quite an art to determine the right temperature for bread or other food. It also explains the boiled desserts and breads: i.e. Boston brown bread or the boiled puddings. So much easier to boil something in a mold without worrying about the temperature. Think about A Christmas Carol by Dickens and the Christmas dinner at the Cratchit house. The turkey had to be roasted elsewhere and the Christmas pudding was boiled.

 

Baked goods, while I’m on the subject, were stored in crocks but without plastic wrap, went stale pretty quickly. Baking therefore had to be undertaken several times every week.

 

Most women used the hearth as a cook surface and a variety of pans to cook on it near the fire. The spider, a three-legged pan, was one such piece of equipment used to bake food. The Dutch over was another. Placed on the hearth, they baked the food slowly in the heat from the fire. Women could then turn their attention to other chores.

 

Fireplaces had look swinging handles that could be pushed over the fire to heat water or cook stew. Some of the big pots that women were lifting from floor level, however, weighed 60 pounds. Yes, sixty, and that’s empty. Now add water and meat.  Add that to the likelihood of burning, not only the food, but you as well and cooking was certainly a challenge. So much for the weaker sex.

 

A final note: The stoves and ranges, although an advance over cooking over an open fire, were known to be temperamental. Contemporary accounts from that period talk about the necessary training a girl had to have before she could really use one of the stoves.

House keeping 1790s – Refrigeration

Another amazing invention, in my opinion, is refrigeration. We take it for granted but refrigeration, especially mechanical refrigeration, is pretty new.

Ice has been used to cool food for millennia. In 400 BC Persian engineers had already mastered the technique for storing ice. Ice was brought in from the mountains and stored underground in specially designed spaces. The ice was used to chill treats for royalty. (Of course )

In England during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries in England low lying areas near the Thames were flooded in winter. The ice was stored in an ice house, insulated by sawdust, moss or something similar. As early as 1823 ice was imported from Norway and of course in the US, ice was transported from the North to the South, i.e from Maine to points as far away as South Carolina. This led to a new industry: the ice trade. Ice was cut from frozen ponds and streams and stored in ice houses before being shipped – eventually – around the world. As one would expect, the citizens of New York City and Philadelphia became huge consumers during their long hot summers.

The ice trade revolutionized the U.S meat, vegetable and fruit industries. It led to the invention of ice boxes; yes, wooden boxes lined with zinc or tin and other insulators like moss, sawdust or cork, with a box for ice. A drip pan underneath caught the melted water. The horse drawn wagons of ice and the ice man became a familiar sight. By 1907 81% of the households in New York City had ice boxes and they are widely credited with a drop of 50% of infant mortality in the summer.

Mechanical ice began to be produced in the late 1800s but was chancy and the process used toxic ammonia gas. Mechanical refrigerators did not go to the homes until the various fluorocarbons were developed.

Prior to refrigeration milk spoiled quickly; in fact, all perishable foods spoiled quickly. People had cold cellars to cool food and tried putting milk down the well to cool it. I read that cheese was an attempt to use milk before it soured.

So, to my way of thinking, the refrigerator is even more important than indoor plumbing.

Housekeeping – 1797 Food Preservation

I was buying cans of beans and diced tomatoes to make chili (a winter staple in my house) when I paused and really looked at the can. We take canned food so much for granted I doubt we ever really think about how wonderful it is. Oh, I know canned spinach is limp and I don’t care for canned green beans BUT before the 1800s there was no such thing as canned food or refrigeration either for that matter.

Food has to be preserved to last over the winter – unless you follow the birds south or plan to starve. Methods for preserving food prior to canned food and refrigeration amounted to pickling, think sauerkraut, drying, salting or smoking. Sugar can also be used but sugar was very expensive then.

People knew keeping the air away from food kept it from spoiling but not why.  Louis Pasteur would not be born for another almost twenty-five years so no one even guessed there were microscopic microbes everywhere. So when was this modern marvel invented?

Well, in 1795 Napoleon Bonaparte offered a reward for anyone who find a reliable method for preserving food for troops on the move. (I imagine he was already dreaming of military glory and world domination). It took fifteen years but one Nicholas Appert figured out a way to seal food in glass jars. Ten years later an Englishman named Peter Durand invented a method using unbreakable tin cans. At first these tinned foods were luxury items for the wealthy but by the end of the nineteenth century they were available for everyone.

Ironically, while the invention was spurred by Napoleon and his wars, the use of canned foods exploded during our own Civil War.

 

American politics – 1798

After George Washington signed the Jay Treaty with England, France was furious. The situation wasn’t helped by the fact that the US would not pay back the loans France had extended during the American Revolution. They argued that the loans were from the King and now that France was a Republic the loans were null and void.

In 1798 France began engaging in ‘hostile’ actions: i.e. rejecting American envoys and capturing American ships. These actions unleashed a wave of anti-French sentiment. It was feared there would be a war with France, “Millions for defense and not one cent for tribute” became the rallying cry.

This leads me to the Alien and Sedition Acts passed in the summer of 1798 by the Congress dominated Federalist (like our current Republicans). It became harder for an immigrant to become a citizen, allowed the President (Adams at this point who was also a Federalist) to imprison or deport non-citizens who were considered dangerous, and criminalized making critical statements about the federal government (this was the Sedition Act). The Federalists claimed this was to prevent anarchy.

The Republican-Democrats rose up in opposition, particularly the Republican-Democrat run newspapers. Under the new law many of the editors were imprisoned and fined.

James Thomas Callender called the Adams administration “a continual tempest of malignant passions” and the President a ‘repulsive pedant, a gross hypocrite and an unprincipled oppressor”. He was sentenced to nine months in jail and fined $200.00.

Benjamin Franklin Bache called the President “the blind, bald, crippled, toothless querulous Adams” of nepotism and monarchial ambition.

Many aliens fled the country. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, hoping to prevent the worst effects of the new laws, prepared a resolution declaring them null and void and giving the States the right to refuse to follow these laws. (This was done in secret and seems somewhat treasonous to me. Anyway, the resolution prepared by Jefferson and Madison ended up being important during the Civil War when the argument of States Rights gave the South a legal reason for secession – and also showing the importance of consequences. But I digress.)

There was tremendous opposition to the laws. Jefferson repealed some of them during his presidency and pardoned all who had been jailed under the law. Congress paid their fines. In fact, there was so much opposition, there were more Republican-Democratic editors afterward than before, in a kind of referendum on repression.
The law against seditious libel (calling a President blind and ambitious) was repealed and the during the following years the Supreme Court decided the it was in direct opposition to the First Amendment.

Several parts of the law, however, such as the sections relating to Alien Enemies, were NOT repealed. During WWII, FDR used the law to send Japanese descendants (62% who were citizens) to the internment camps. As late as 1947 Ellis Island continued to hold ethnic Germans.

These laws have not been repealed even now and Trump could use them, as he promised to do in 2015, to expel or imprison Muslims.

I don’t know why people think History is boring. Discouraging, maybe, because we fight the same battles over and over, but to me history always has lessons that reflect upon the present.

American Politics – 1798

After George Washington signed the Jay Treaty with England, France was furious. The situation wasn’t helped by the fact that the US would not pay back the loans France had extended during the American Revolution. They argued that the loans were from the King and now that France was a Republic the loans were null and void.

In 1798 France began engaging in ‘hostile’ actions: i.e. rejecting American envoys and capturing American ships. These actions unleashed a wave of anti-French sentiment. It was feared there would be a war with France, “Millions for defense and not one cent for tribute” became the rallying cry.

This leads me to the Alien and Sedition Acts passed in the summer of 1798 by the Congress dominated Federalist (like our current Republicans). It became harder for an immigrant to become a citizen, allowed the President (Adams at this point who was also a Federalist) to imprison or deport non-citizens who were considered dangerous, and criminalized making critical statements about the federal government (this was the Sedition Act). The Federalists claimed this was to prevent anarchy.

The Republican-Democrats rose up in opposition, particularly the Republican-Democrat run newspapers. Under the new law many of the editors were imprisoned and fined.

James Thomas Callender called the Adams administration “a continual tempest of malignant passions” and the President a ‘repulsive pedant, a gross hypocrite and an unprincipled oppressor”. He was sentenced to nine months in jail and fined $200.00.

Benjamin Franklin Bache called the President “the blind, bald, crippled, toothless querulous Adams” of nepotism and monarchial ambition.

Many aliens fled the country. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, hoping to prevent the worst effects of the new laws, prepared a resolution declaring them null and void and giving the States the right to refuse to follow these laws. (This was done in secret and seems somewhat treasonous to me. Anyway, the resolution prepared by Jefferson and Madison ended up being important during the Civil War when the argument of States Rights gave the South a legal reason for secession – and also showing the importance of consequences. But I digress.)

There was tremendous opposition to the laws. Jefferson repealed some of them during his presidency and pardoned all who had been jailed under the law. Congress paid their fines. In fact, there was so much opposition, there were more Republican-Democratic editors afterward than before, in a kind of referendum on repression.
The law against seditious libel (calling a President blind and ambitious) was repealed and the during the following years the Supreme Court decided the it was in direct opposition to the First Amendment.

Several parts of the law, however, such as the sections relating to Alien Enemies, were NOT repealed. During WWII, FDR used the law to send Japanese descendants (62% who were citizens) to the internment camps. As late as 1947 Ellis Island continued to hold ethnic Germans.

These laws have not been repealed even now and Trump could use them, as he promised to do in 2015, to expel or imprison Muslims.

I don’t know why people think History is boring. Discouraging, maybe, because we fight the same battles over and over, but to me history always has lessons that reflect upon the present.